KNIL – Bronze Cross for escape and resistance

The Bronze Cross is the third highest medal for Gallantry in the Netherlands (after the Military Order of William and the Bronze Lion). It was awarded a total 3497 times since its institution in 1940.

Citation: Barend Nicolaas Tuinenburg, born June 21, 1906, Reserve soldier of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (Army number 65207).
In December 1944 escaped from the prisoner of war camp Aikit (Siam, current Thailand). Joined the Thai gangs, which harmed the Japs by raiding Japanese camps, stations, and trains, resulting in many casualties on the Japanese side, and also saving many Javanese families from the hands of the Japs.
After the capitulation of Japan proceeded on foot to the ex-prisoner of war camp Canbury and reported there to the Dutch commander.

The award was given by Royal Decree. No award document was given to the recipient apart from an extract (uittreksel) of the Decree. This was the custom untill recent times.

The USAF A2 Flight Jacket, a classic re-invented

The A2 Flight Jacket was the iconic jacket of the US Army Air Force during WW2 with many fans including General Douglas McArthur who also wore the Ray Ban aviators, a man of style.

The jacket also was often embellished with the same paintings as the airmen used on their planes, the so called nose art. Both pictures from internet.

Afther WW2 they were still worn into early 1950s but the jacket was retired after the Korean war as more modern materials (like nylon) were introduced for flight clothing.

In 1987 the jacket was re-introduced to commemorate the 40th birthday of the US Air Force. According to the modern regulation: ‘the jackets will be issued only to officers or enlisted personnel who are in mission-ready, emergency-mission-ready, mission capable, or mission-support billets assigned at or below wing level who met the criteria on or after September 18, 1987, the Air Force’s fortieth birthday. Once a member is issued the jacket,‘ according to the regulation, “he or she may continue to wear it after being reassigned from the duties [that] originally qualified him or her for the issue. It can be worn with the flight suit, service uniform, or pullover sweater but not with civilian clothes. After he or she retires, the wearer may keep the jacket.’

This is on overview of the variations made between 1988-2007 as found the USMilitariaForum, compiled by Cowboy4.

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The use of Nose Art is longer allowed in regular use and is rarely seen as it can only be used off duty or after leaving the air force. These issued jackets are a modern collectable and still can be found but the early ones are getting harder to find especially in the larges sizes.

There are also a lot of commerical variations which can be nice but are not really collectables with a historical background as these issued piecesare. So you have to check if these military contract numbers are on the label:

Cooper Sportswear Mfg. Co., Inc. (under the Saddlery label) with numbers 1988 DLA 100 88 C0420 / 1992 DLA 100 92-M-0061 / 1995 SPO 100-95-C-4030 / 1996 SPO 100-96-D-4020 Branded Garments Inc. Orchard M/C Inc. with number 1992 DLA 100-92-C-0346A Avirex Ltd. with numbers 1998 SPO 100-98-C-5018 and 1999 SPO 100-99-D-4009-xxxx and the last supplier Cockpit USA, Inc. with number 2007 SPM1C1-07-D-1540 xxxx

Here two issued examples next to each other a 1988 Saddlery (the earliest version made) and a 1999 Avirex version. With differences in colour and detailing but also in cut. Most collectors especially favor the early Saddlery versions.

The Avirex also has been painted on the back and also has a custom made badge of the Air National Guard. The painting was done at Pop’s leather (Incirlik Air Base Turkey) in 2005 .At that moment the 132nd Air Refueling Squadron was deployed as part of the operations of Iraqi and Enduring Freedom.

Below the Air National Guard custom badge, the signature on the artwork and an example of the patch (not my collection) on which the artwork is based. The concept of this patch stems from WW2 when the sqn was still a bombing unit. The winged skeleton has a bomb in its hands…

Below a picture from internet of the 132nd Air Refueling Sqn in action with an F22 fighter being fueled up.

Here a badge as shown on www.ericusafpatches.nl of the 132nd (nicknamed MAINEIacs as Maine is their home state) from when they were deployed as part of Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan) and located at Incirlik Air Base where Pop’s is located.

Great collectables for daily wear by US aviators, current and former US presidents or just regular guys 🙂 like my sonTibor (Saddlery) and myself (Avirex).

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Gerrit’s Travels, Part 2 – Vietnam

Gerrit spent the first half of the ’60s in Greenland working at the BMEWS base, one of the coldest parts of the world. You can read more about him in part 1, the earlier blog about him. The second half of the ’60s he spent in tropical Vietnam working official US (Army) related contracts. Probably 5 years in total between 1965 and 1970 but exact starting and ending dates are unknown. Only one passport survives has his 1969 Vietnam dates in it and some other paperwork from around 1969 survives but not much.

As he passed away I am not sure I will ever know what he did there exactly. He worked in some capacity for RMK-BRJ the largest building conglomerate active in Vietnam during the war. You can read more about their history here: RMK-BRJ wiki

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Gerrit’s hardhat with the RMK-BRJ logo

He had some form of medical education in the US (he stated to be an MD but I found no actual proof for this though) and he worked in some medical capacity it seems, probably in the line of Health and Food safety for RMK-BRJ.

Below a photo of his kit-bag (his original Dutch one, not a US version!): GHM Medical Department / Facilities & Operations RMK BRJ / 6th Division Vietnam

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Photo of his kit-bag (his original Dutch one, not a US version!): GHM Med.Dep. (Medical Department) / F&O (Facilities & Operations) RMK BRJ / 6(th) Div (Division) VN. (Vietnam)

Here some paperwork form his time in Vietnam:

His late war MACV ID Card (Military Assistance Command Vietnam)

His Government drivers license with Vietnam Road Sign test

Saigon Hospital card and Saigon Freemason membership card (look at the date March 1975 just a month before the fall….?)

As he spent a long period in Vietnam he witnessed most of the war and not always from a safe distance! On several occasions he risked his life in the line of duty. As can be read on the Wiki regarding RMK-BRJ more than 52 employees were killed in those years.

I’ll share here some of my favourite pictures from his collection (these are mainly prints I took from the slides he made) there are many more!

Some local forces:

Do you see something bulbing inside his white shirt? He told me he always carried a grenade there for safety reasons, but not visible…. not sure how that would work….
This white truck appears on several photo’s so I assume it was his!

Driving a river boat, he went with the river forces (riverines) on patrols on several occassions, just for fun and he spoke French fluently so he could help out in communications too.

After a request on the US Militaria forum I learned the ship must have been part of River Patrol Section 532 based on the patch visible on one of the pictures!

Above shooting a M-79 grenade launcher and below driving the boat himself.

Patch of River Patrol Section 532 as I have learned!

With the Marines he had a Dutch friend there too, recently emigrated to the US.

I think his white truck can be seen on this photo!

And some random photo’s. A forget me not club, location unknown and with a Tiger Stripe boonie hat.

Some of the items he collected during this period:

The Marbles pilots survival knife he already got in Greenland and brought to VN.

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The Rolex Datejust he bought for his Birthday during R&R in Bangkok in 1967! It can be seen on the stairs of a friends house in Saigon. He is guarding the house with his M1 with double (taped together) banana magazines.

A relatively rare item among his military gear are these: Military Survival Kit – Hot Wet environment. Mainly issued to Special Forces in Vietnam. For more info see this page

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You cannot hide your heritage, reading a newspaper from Deventer, the Netherlands, in Vietnam!

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Gerrit’s Travels, Part 1 – Thule Air Base, BMEWS

Missiles in Greenland, war in Vietnam, problems in Persia…..

During my teens in the early ’80’sof last century I got to know Gerrit. He was an acquaintance of my parents. He had stories and photo’s of countries and places where nobody else I knew had ever been. He was a bit of an adventurer so there was much to tell. Being only a kid much of this information was lost over time. After Gerrit passed away I helped his widow some years later to sell some of his collections and I got many of the photo’s and items which had interested me so much in my youth.

In this small series of blogs I will share some of these photo’s and items from his travels in the 60s, mainly his life in Greenland and Vietnam. In both locations he was working as a civilian contractor for the US military.

Gerrit wearing a USAF cold weather parka in Thule, Greenland

Gerrit was born in 1929 in Deventer, Holland. In the early 50s he studied Hotel Management in Switzerland and soon after emigrated to the US where he became a citizen, after his retirement he returned to Deventer in the Netherlands our mutual home town. During his period in the US he studied medicine but it remains unclear if he actually became a MD as he later claimed.

To be honest much of his life remained unknown which probably added to the “mystique” around his travel and activities abroad. He always seemed to work in troubles locations. After Vietnam came Persia and after that Congo just before the local revolutions happened that ended in changing the names of these countries.

The Cold War

In the ’50s and ’60s of last century the tension between the western world and the east, especially the Soviets was building up. The war in Korea, the Cuba crisis and later the Vietnam war were al very visible examples of this. The cold war was also one of fear for a Nuclear war with Ballistic Missiles flying over the oceans. If you could stop the enemies missiles you could win this potential war….

BMEWS – Ballistic Missile Early Warning System

In order to find and after shoot down enemy missiles the US started the BMEWS project in 1959 which was completed in 1964. The main contractor for the entire project was RCA, short for Radio Corporation of America. The contract was close to 500 million USD initially. They were building enormous radar sites with linked computer systems. There was a total of 12 radars at several sites, Thule being the biggest with 5 of these radars the location was known as the J-Site. Next to the Radars there were jets for interception and NIKE missiles but I will get back to that later.

Gerrit in front of the BMEWS Radars in Thule

In the years that Gerrit worked in Thule (63/64/65) everything was aimed at completing the project as soon as possible in order to guarantee the USA a higher level of safety against the Soviet threat….

As mentioned he worked for RCA in the field service, probably in the role of facility manager (he later had several more of these type of roles in other locations).

Here his address at the time as stated in the postcard also seen at the top of this blog.

And here a folder for new RCA arrivals at the Thule BMEWS project. On the inside he describes the location of his sleeping quarters in spring so this is probably from 1963. The location of the dot on the inside corresponds with the map on the outside.

Thule Air Base – 4683rd Air Defense Wing

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Obviously Thule was an Air Base next to the BMEWS radar station. In the period Gerrit lived here (’63/’65) the 4683rd Air Defense Wing was stationed there. This unit was formed in 1960 and discontinued in 1965 so Gerrit witnessed most of its lifetime.

Thule Times of 1964 with the Wing Commander and the Base commander

They flew with the Convair F-102, Delta Dagger as pictured below in Thule.

NIKE Missile base

I am not sure how secret these things were back in that period but Gerrit was always proud of his Security Clearance (he said the highest a civilian could get). I did not see any of the NIKE missile pictures until after he passed away and I received his box of Greenland pictures….

Several pictures of the NIKE Hercules missiles, ready for action…

Next to the Jets and Missiles there were other planes….

People had to be brought, supplies had to be brought so plenty of other planes on the Air Base like these:

DC3 and it’s big brother, a C137 Stratoliner

On ski’s

Or Danish visitors:

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Probably a Catalina, adapted with ski’s.

And of course the Fire Brigade in case of problems….

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And there were helicopters too!

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A HH43 – Huskie Helicopter

Prized possessions of an Arctic Traveller

Gerrit lived as a civilian on the Air Base. It seems that in his role he had acces to military supplies and also to the military shop, the so called Base Exchange (BX). A place it seems were also luxury items like Omega watches could be bought or ordered.

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Next to the photo’s I have some of his most prized possession of that time, his parka, knife and watch. I will discuss them here as they are quite unique…at least to me!

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In most photo’s he can be seen wearing his N3B US Air Force cold weather parka. Next to the Parka I have the matching trousers and a pair of aviators fur lined boots…

He also had a Marbles Jet Pilot survival knife that he kept on using in the Vietnam war. Marbles designed the knife but they did not get the Defense Contract. So probably this is a private purchase from the Base Exchange. In any case it is a rare knife by now.

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And here is Gerrit wearing and using the knife! First in his dormitory with the parka on the chair, the knife on the table, used to open a can? And plenty of Kodak films in the drawer…

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And here worn on the belt during his trip to Dundas

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And my personal favorite, as it can still be used, his Gold Omega Seamaster. Bought January 1963 on the Base Exchange!

Dundas Mountain

Gerrit somehow got the opportunity to make a trip with the local inhabitants, the Inuit or as they often were called in that time Eskimo’s. Today there are companies offering dog sled tours in that area but looking at these photo’s it was not a commercial business yet in the 60s. Dundas mountain is quite near to the Thule site so it appears on many pictures. As the picture below show the trip started from BMEWS itself, four of the five radars can be seen here and of course the dog led sled!

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As I have no details on the trip itself from Gerrit it was good te see that on some pictures he made captions of what we can see!

The caption reads: An Eskimo from Dundas with gun and screen for the seal hunt

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It seems he made the trip with some unknown friends from the base.

He mentions one of the dogs by name and says he often took it into his truck

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Probably this one?

Two photo’s of “locals”, really love these, they could be in a period National Geographic…

Also during his time in Vietnam Gerrit always had good relations with local people. Not being in the military himself probably gave him some more possibilities for this.

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The family that took him on the trip?

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Skinning after the hunt, pole fox?

Dundas from the seaside…

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This wildlife booklet must have helped, he studied it well. He brought even some items with him that are no longer here like a Narwal tooth, from the unicorm of the seas…

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Life on the base

In the years Gerrit was in Thule the base was still quite new and still being built. It was not a place of luxury but of a very simple life, work, eat, sleep, repeat….

Here some pictures of that simple life in the harsh conditions of the Arctic.

Construction still ongoing!

As on any base there was also a Chapel for the churchgoing part of the staff. And of course Xmas specials on the menu.

Dormitories were quite simple with small rooms. Not sure if private rooms were available to all personnel?

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The barracks in summertime, looking very new

Outside of the dormitory and inside.

Just enough place for a bed, a small table and some personal belongings…

Weather conditions were very harsh, even in spring and summer

Describing weather conditions and leaving his Jeep near the other Barracks for better protection against the snow.

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And of course US Mail!

Later after the 1968 accident with a B-52 there was radiation but no idea what the radiation could have been before 1965?

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And the ubiquitous sign post found on every base far from the States!

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KNIL – timepieces

Recently I added two KNIL timepieces to my collections. A wristwatch by Tissot and a timer by Heuer. Based on these I started some deskresearch and this blog is based on what I found online so far. All additional info is welcome!

Wristwatches. So far I have found three specific versions of KNIL wrist watches. Two versions with a waterproof case and a decentral (small) seconds hand and one with a central (long) seconds hand.

Type 1: WWW. The first type are re-issued watches of the British army. The so called Waterproof Wrist Watch (designated WWW on the back). These watches are nicknamend the dirty dozen (after the movie) as there were 12 manufacturers of these WWW type watches. These watches have a caseback that has the English official stamping and a secondary KNIL engraving and in some cases even a third Indonesian Army (A.D.R.I.) engraving that is somewhat cruder.

Below an example of the 12 makers from the face side and two from the reverse with KNIL and ADRI engraving as shown on: https://www.acollectedman.com/blogs/journal/59621443-the-story-of-the-dirty-dozen-the-first-wristwatches-specially-commissioned-for-the-british-army

The engraving in all cases is KNIL and a 4 digit serial number. So far I have found numbers starting with a 1/2/3/4/5 so a total of more than 5000 pieces seems possible.

Type 2: Tissot. The second type seems to be bought directly by the KNIL as it only has one type of engraving and they all are similar.

These also have a serial number of 4 digits and so far I have found numbers starting with 6/7/8. So based on that it is likely that these came after the WWW watches! This is only a hypothesis though. Further research is needed! My version:

It is numbered 6577. I have seen multiple examples online with the exact same caseback and identical type of engraving with numbers: 6787 / 7009 / 7746 / 8709 so there were probably 3000 of these Tissot watches! Museum Bronbeek (KNIL museum) has two examples in its collection (8466 / 8807). One of these example came from the estate of a Bren carrier driver.

Below a version with the same style of reverse but a slightly different face which has seen very much use (and abuse) – not my collection.

Type 3: Central seconds variation/Queen Juliana. The third variation has central seconds and a later type of engraving. It has a crowned J (for Queen Juliana so 1948 or later!) below that KNIL and under that again the serial number starting with a letter T and 4 digits. The digits start with 0 and 1 again. There seem to be more brands with this engraving but all have central seconds which is fitting with a later period of production/purchase. Technos seems to be one of the brands making this type of watch.

Both photo’s taken from internet – I could not establish the owner of the photo’s if found I will provide the credits.

Apart from the example of the Tissot watch in Bronbeek I have not seen examples of watches with a confirmed provenance. With a possible 8 to 10,000 watches all personell who needed a wristwatch to perform their official duties might have received one (as far as avalaible). This would include air force use, drivers, artillery and many other fuctions, maybe even officers.

British Army Pocket Watch (GSTP – General Service Time Piece). So far I have seen a few examples of these classic pocket watches with a KNIL engraving. These are also re-issued British army timepieces. Probably bought together with the WWW wrist watches from British military surplus after WW2.

And last for now a Heuer Timer. These are so far all the same and have a 30 seconds face with a 15 minute counter. Serial numbers have 3 digits and all examples seen so far start with the number 2 (224 / 227 /243) so a series of less than 300 it seems. Like the Tissot this seems to be one order for one type only. Thest timers were probably used for sound distancing, so mainly artillery use. Determining the distance based on the sound of impact after a shot has been released and measuring the time in between to calculate the distance. Possibly also used for mortar and air force (bomb) timing.

So far I have not established if these were already used in 1942 or before or only 1946 and later.

As stated above this is only based on some deskresearch so nothing is conclusive yet. More info is welcome, please contact me, also with examples and additional serial number info.

Austrian Iron Crown Order 1851

This is a group of documents to Adolph Straub from 1851 who was a Stabs Auditor (Military Judge) in the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia which was in Austrian hands at that moment. Fieldmarshall Count Radetzky was the commander / viceroy of that region from 1848 until his death in 1858.

And on the following page from the ranklist of 1851 we find Straub:

Stabs-Auditor (Military Judge) Adolph Straub was awarded the Iron Crown Order 3rd class in 1851. Officially the number of recipients was limited to 50 in the original statutes but this was no longer the case in 1851 nevertheless it still was a rare order.

Below the formal award document signed by the Minister of War Feldzeugmeister Csorich.

Fieldmarschall Radetzky as commander of Straub also communicated with him regarding the award which leads to the letter below to Straub including the original signature of Radetzky and the use of his personally marked paper (often more generic paper was used in general communications!).

So this group of documents if for an important order but also with some very rare signatures in Austro-Hungarian history.

Vitéz stories VI – Colonel Csanády, Honvéd IR 24

Of this officer I have two documents in my collection. The diploma for his promotion to Colonel in 1920 which was also his final rank before retirement.

The 1917 ranklist shows him as a major in the 24th Honvéd Infantry Regiment.

The 1918 version shows he has been promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel.

His medal list does not show yet the Iron Crown Order 3rd class he must have received in the course of 1918 and is listed as his highest ranking medal on the diploma for Colonel.

He also became a vitéz in 1929. In this short overview it is mentioned that he saw action both on the Russian and Italian front. This overview mentions a different unit.

And that leeds to the 2nd document of this officer, his order of vitéz diploma of 1929, at which moment he was already retired.

The document unfortunately was in pieces but what was left has been beautifully restored!

This article about two Golden Bravery Medals also mentions him (based on name and rank it must be him) as a commander of an attack on the Northern Italian village of Passarella in November 1917.

Sources of documents through this great Hungarian website of the Hungarian Military Archives

Austro-Hungarian WW 1 photo’s – part III

Here some more pictures from my collection with the addition of information by contributers on Facebook and forums. Good enough to share but not enough for their own blog… Thanks again for your help!

First theme – Helmets and or gasmask being worn:

After the 11th offensive (in Hungarian) and the date indeed corresponds with a moment shortly after the 11th Isonzo battle.
With thanks to Ryan Nelson: Not much can be seen in the background, however due to the helmet, gasmask, and, the trench, it can possibly be inferred that this soldier could be with either Landwehr Infanterie Regiment Nr. 4 ‘Klagenfurt’ or Nr. 27 ‘Laibach’ which were called Gebirgsschützen regiments 1 and 2 in March 1917. The two Landwehr regiments had been incorporated into the Landesschützen command and were also given the Edelweiẞ insignia. These two regiments were along the Piave front in 1917/1918 and not in the mountainous areas like the 3 Kaiserschützen regiments. The man also appears to be wearing a sharpshooters lanyard typical for the Landesschützen which is in line with the above assessment.
Kézdivásárhely (Rumania) April 23rd 1918. On the location by Sandor Magyarosi: the Romanian offensive against Transylvania in 1916 took the town, but as a part of the German-Austro-Hungarian counterattack, the Austro-Hungarians took it back the same year (more precisely, the k.u.k. 82nd regiment). They pushed forward to the border an stopped (a bit into Romania), so the lines of the two parties were built in the mountains. The major fighting took place in fact in 1917, at the Ojtoz/Oituz Pass. Basically Kézdivásárhely was the first town behind the front (there were some villages that were closer, but this was the closest urban settlement). If the picture was taken in April 1918, these guys probably were just withdrawn from the front (the armistice with Romania was already in place) and they were waiting to be transferred to the Italian front.

Some other (than infantry) branches:

Two cavalry men (Hussars most likely)
Pioneer that looks like an attendant of the Pionierkadettenschule because of his smaller “Kadettensäbel” and the Salonhosen (Maxi Wlezcek)
Ulans, eastern front early war. Very non standard coats….

Reading a paper…

Reading a Hungarian newspaper. Interesting to see a German “ersatz” Pickelhaube above the man.
Officers (major and 2nd lt) reading a Hungarian newspaper (Az Est – The Evening) and some trench art made of shells in use.

Some medals being worn by officers (bravery medals you can find in the blog dedicated to that theme).

Reserve 1st Lieutenant Paul (Pál) Zsurilla Paul of Infantry Regiment 26. Note the 2nd award bar on the Military Merit Cross! (thanks to Ivan Iver Chudý)
Award ceremony of a German Irond Cross 2nd class to a Cavalry officer

Austro-Hungarian WW1 photo’s – part II

The army did not only exist of Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery but these pictures are the most common ones. This blog is dedicated to some of the other professions in the KuK army. All needed in the war effort but less standard to find pictures of. Here some orignals from my collection.

Dogs played a part in different capacities in WW1, here an example fo dogs used to pull carts for transport purposes like the mail, the so called “KuK Hundekolonne” in German.
KuK Military laundry group, see top right board with Militär Wäscherei!
Field kitchen or “Gulash Kanone” in use.
A more common profession, the farrier or hoof smith

Communications (signals/telegraph) was an important part of the modernisation of warfare in WW1. Left the armlet with T for Telegraph which was in use before the more generic collar badge was introduced that can be seen on the man right.

And communications in use!

The Medical Corps plays an important role during war. Here some examples starting with the field medics, “sanitäter” in German:

Rare variation of the medical armband of the German Knights (see the Emperors coat for a reference to this version)

And the hospitals, both in the field and regular military hospitals.

Medical Doctor in front of Field Hospital 1/1 so the first hospital of Corps 1
Room pictures

And some rare “action” pictures from the hospital

And a last MD in action

More medical people below. Based on rank not medics but MDs.

The Field Gendarmes were the military police that had an important role but often not very popular. They had standard KuK uniforms with only an armband as distinction from the regular army. They were the law behind the front lines and in the occupied territories.

KuK Field police (gendarme), Streif Korps. Front and back of the photo postcard.

Below some variations of the armband in wear from the photo’s above. It seems hard to find two examples that are the same. See also the book “The Emperors coat” (Rest/Ortner/Ilming) for multiple examples.

Austro-Hungarian campaign in Serbia 1915

Worldwar 1 started with the declaration of war against Serbia by the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1914 and was the start of the Serbian campaign. This campaign was largely unseccesfull until the attempt that started on October 7th, 1915. This last campaign ended on November 24th of the same year.

In this last campaign against Serbia were the following forces: the Bulgarian First Army commanded by Kliment Boyadzhiev, the German Eleventh Army commanded by Max von Gallwitz and the Austro-Hungarian Third Army commanded by Hermann Kövess von Kövessháza, all three under the control of the German Field Marshal August von Mackensen.

WW1 period map from internet

Until the end of WW1 the Banat region was part of Hungary which was again part of the Austro-Hungarian empire. The small city of Fehertemplom, or in German Weisskirchen, was in that region and bordered with Serbia. After the war as a result of the Trianon treaty the region would be split and Fehertemplom would become part of Serbia.

Josef Pártos was a finance official in the rank of Respizient in the Royal Hungarian Finance Commission of the city of Fehertemplom.

He received two separate document for a “Belobende Anerkennung” roughly a “mention in despatches”. This is more or less one step below the merit medal (often known as Signum Laudis based on the text on the reverse of the medal) and in this case also in the face of the enemy. So with wartime ribbon and swords if the medal indeed was given (swords were added only later in the war to the ribbon).

What he exactly did to earn this commendation is a mystery and probaby will remain so (no military records). But it must be quite unique for a finance person to qualify! Based on location and date it most probably was linked to the final Serbian campaign that started on October 7th 1915 especially as the first document is awarded by the 3rd Army command (one of the 3 armies involved in that action as discussed above) and hand signed by its Commander Kövess von Kövessháza!

Photo with signature of Kövess – from internet

The second document is from the regional command of Banat.