Hungarian River Police badge

The badge shown here is a very rare badge of the Hungarian River Police (folyam rendőrség) from the Horthy (1920-1945) period. So far research has not resulted in additional info but I did get one photo where the badge can be seen. It was worn on the left sleeve.

Officer of the Hungarian River Police (WW1 veteran) with the same badge.

Do you know more?

I am looking for additional info. If you know more please let me know so I can update the blog. What period was the badge used exactly? Was it for all ranks? What quantities of the River Police did exist?

Special Forces Para Wing of the Netherlands East Indies Army (1946-1950) – KNIL Speciale Troepen Parawing

The Dutch East Indies Army had a long tradition with anti guerilla style combat before the war, especially with the Korps Marechaussee. After the second worldwar this knowledge was enhanced with that of the new Airborne and Commando groups. A new unit was formed in 1946 the Special Forces Regiment (Depot/Korps/Regiment Speciale Troepen KNIL).

In 1947 also a Para Company was formed (1st Para Company), not part of the Speciale Troepen unit that was only Commando’s at that moment

In 1948 the Commando’s also would form a Para-Commando Company (2nd Para Company).

All para’s were trained by the SOP – School Opleiding Parachutisten – Airborne School

For the large scale Airborne action called “Operation Crow” these two units would be combined in the Para Battle Group (Para Gevechtsgroep). The total would consist of some 350 men with airborne qualifications. The majority of these forces received both Commando and Airborne training.

Although the unit was KNIL it was open to volunteers meeting the criteria including regular draftees of the Expeditionary Forces. For the unity of uniform KNIL ranks would be used for all.

Bronze
Brass
Silver

Red and Green Berets in one unit!

The 1st Para Company formed in 1947 would wear the red beret. The commando’s would wear a green beret. When the commando’s started their para training in 1948 the would wear a green beret with the para wing on it. Later as the Para Battle Group all would wear red berets.

Some officers received the Green Beret without going through additional training. In most cases this was based on their Marechaussee experience from before the war.

On the green beret the Dutch Lion was worn as with the WW2 Dutch commando’s. This Lion was normally in metal but KNIL officers could use the KNIL version embroidered in gold with a wreath.

The red beret with the wing was the sign of completion of all Para-Commando training and handed out at the end of the course. It was a symbol of achievement that was worn proudly!

Period photo’s of the wing being worn (taken from internet sources).

History of the wing

In an earlier Dutch article published in Armamentaria, the magazine of the Dutch Military Museum, a short history of the wing was given. Originally it was designed for use as a qualification wing for the Experimental Para Group of the Netherlands East Indies Army in 1941. A batch in bronze was made but never used it seems. The same degin with the hand & dagger can be seen in documents regarding the Korps Insulinde. The unit was officially named “Netherlands Special Operations” a WW2 commando unit that started in August 1942 in Ceylon and was aimed at gathering intelligence against the Japanese.

The instructors of the Airborne school (SOP) had their background in either this Korps Insulinde of in No2 Commando. When the first airborne training was completed in june 1947 a choice had to be made what insignia was going to be used as qualification wing. As the majority of the instructors had an English para qualification wing already a similar design was chosen. The batch of wings made in 1941 that was still available now was designated as wing to be worn on the red beret.

SOP instructors – Museum Bronbeek, inventarisnummer: 2007/06/04-3/1

The eyelet below the wreath was soldered on seperately, it was not part of the mold! It was to be used for a device to show combat jumps when it was still a qualification wing. The device (possibly a dagger) was never made.

Selection of period wings

Variations

This first 1941 batch was in bronze. This batch was used for the first groups in 1947. When this batch was finished new batches were made using the same mold. Somewhere in the process of making new batches brass was chosen as the material as this could be polished better, a desire of many of the new para’s!

Another variation was made in real silver! Regarding the silver version several stories are given none can be substantiated. For instructors, for people with combat jumps, for officers etc.

Brass was chosen as it could be polished more shiny than the first bronze versions, is the common understanding. The brass version is the most common (but stil rare!). Bronze and silver seem to be equally rare. All three material still had the eyelet soldered on, despite it no longer had any practical use.

Some collectors claim the material variations are only unintentional differences in the alloy mix. Just different production batches using a slightly different alloy.

The history of the 1941 design is also contested. There is the version that the wing was designed only in 1946 and produced from that date onwards and there was no 1941 production. It was designed in combination with the 1946 SOP badge by the same person. I am still looking for period information backing either version but both stories have been published.

Below front and back of the three material variations or alloys of the original, period made wings.

Copies

Several poor quality copies and some slightly better copies of these wings exist. Next to this also a reunion version exist, probably from the 1970s. This is often seen/sold as an original version but was not worn before 1950! The eyelet beneath the wreath is not soldered on (as with originals) but it is cast/struck in one piece as an integral part of the badge. A comparison can easily be made, there are more signs to look for so beware! Versions with makers (like Stokes) are all later fakes. With the originals often the eyelet beneath the wing or on the back are either missing or have been replaced at a later date. To find a complete version has become very difficult!

Example of the reunion wing (photo from the internet!)

Korea

After 1950 the Dutch East Indies Army including the Special Forces were disbanded. Veterans continued to wear the beret badge up to july 1955 in the regular Dutch army. With the start of the Korean conflict the Dutch also formed a detachment. The Special Forces veterans were on the top of the list for recruitment. As a result of this many Special Forces beret wings would were worn in the Korean conflict! Below some examples in Korea (not my collection) even on the US Army pile cap!

Korea Detachment (1st) with several wings visible!

Sources: http://www.militairmagazijn.nl/bronnen/armamentaria/artikel/bronnen_armas_xml_74aafe1f-56c0-4f7e-a4d5-cf503840ee23/

https://www.defensie.nl/onderwerpen/historische-canons/historische-canon-korps-commando-troepen/het-korps-paraat/korps-insulinde

First photo: Museum Bronbeek, inventarisnummer: 2007/06/04-3/1

ML KNIL Wings – Netherlands East Indies Military Airforce

Recently I was able to acquire a small collection of badges and wings from the Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) from the 1940s.

Today I will describe two wings of the Airforce (ML KNIL) from this collection:

Bomber Wing
Radio Operator (Telegraphist) Wing

Crew Wings

Both of these models of wings were introduced in 1940. At that moment there was still peace in the Dutch East Indies but the war in the Netherlands already was lost. Wings were still produced locally. This changed after the Indies were lost to the Japanese in 1942. All forces and planes evacuated to Australia as far as possible. Troops left behind ended up as Prisoners of War with the Japanese invaders. During the war the operations in the pacific were continued from Australia. The education of new pilots and aviation crews for the Dutch East Indies Army was mostly done in the USA. This had as a result that wings were produced in both the USA and Australia.

Makers

In the USA one maker was used, Amico. In Australia two makers were used KG Luke and Stokes. All makers have slight differences in the feathers of the wings Colour is the easiest distinction between the USA and Australian versions. Amico used the dark bronze colour that was also the standard before the war. In Australia the colour (and material?) was brass. Most wings produced after 1941 are also marked by the maker but not all.

Pre war style closure
War period style closure

Stokes

Both of these wings are made by Stokes but are from different batches. One is a rare variation with the pre-war style closure in place of the regular pin with safety closure. According to Rob Vis (the foremost Dutch Wing Collector) in 1942 when the KNIL had to evacuate to Australia a rush order was placed for some types of wings and these were ordered with the old (then standard) style closure. Later production batches all had the regular pin backs. The bomber is an even rarer variation as post 1945 these were no longer produced. The bombers were used as strafers in Indonesia so bomb aimers were no longer trained.

Stokes marking on the Radio Operator wing
Example of an Australian made wing being worn (navigator)

Amico

Below an example of an Aviator combined with Navigator (W for Waarnemer) wing made by Amico in the USA. Note the different style of wing/feathers and the darker colour despite being polished to shine in the past.. (This wing not part of the recent additions).

1st Lt Samson wearing the Aviator/Navigator combined wing

Copies

According to Mr. Vis reproductions of the Stokes early batch type of wing also exist but are of lower quality. As all of the ML KNIL wings are relatively rare reproductions have been made to fool collectors so please study before buying!

A great overview of all ML KNIL wings can be found here.