KNIL – MWO – A forgotten hero, Atjeh 1942

As a collector you sometimes get to be the custodian of a special and rare piece of history. Years ago I was able to acquire a post 1940 Knights Diploma for a Military Order of William 4th class. As the decoration itself is not named the paperwork is the most historically important  part of the award to me as a researcher.

The Military Order of William is the highest Dutch award for bravery and has been awarded only 196 times since 1940 of which 55 awards were posthumous and 9 to units. Currently there are 4 living awardees, one from world war 2 and three recent awardees for actions in Afghanistan with our Special Forces (one of them a Helicopter Pilot for these forces). Most of these awards are for bravery in direct actions against the enemy but this is a very different story and therefore even more special, it is the story of saving 3000 civilians, mainly women and children from harm’s way….

This is the citation of Adriaan Zijlman’s Miltary Order of William 4th class as seen on his Knights Diploma:

zijlmans-mutatie

Translated:

Has distinguished himself in action by the perpetration of excellent deeds of bravery, good conduct and loyalty with his activities, under very difficult circumstances, as commander of a detachment of the 2nd Marechaussee division in February and March 1942 om the West Coast of Atjeh.

For the realisation of his assignment to evacuate ± 3000 women and children, mainly of local military forces on the west coast of Atjeh, he has taken the necessary actions in a discreet and dauntless way, also successfully facing several attacks by gangs of Acehnese and on March 19th 1942 breaking up a large gang of Acehnese in the surrounding of Tapa Toean. Until the surrender to the Japanese he has protected these women and children in an effective way against harm from Acehnese gangs.

It is a forgotten history that I hope to revive here with some context. Adriaan Zijlmans was born in the Dutch East Indies in 1914 in a place called Sigli which is in the North of the island of Sumatra. This region was called Atjeh then and currently it is known as Aceh. During the Dutch colonization of the East Indies this region never stopped the fight against the Dutch rule which was viewed by them as a religious duty as much as patriotic.

The war in Aceh started in 1873 for the Dutch and it never really ended until they left the region in 1950. The period between 1910 and 1942 was relatively peaceful considering the earlier wars. This changed in the early 1940s. The Japanese expansionism was seen as a sign of the dwindling might of the western colonizers and the rise of Asian strength. This revived the will to fight again in the Aceh region. The waiting in Atjeh was for an action of Japan against the colonies to start the uprising (again).

The fighting in the Atjeh region was so intense that an elite unit was developed: the Marechaussee (on foot). This unit was started in 1890 as an active counter guerilla unit against the local guerilla units. They moved on foot, were self-supporting and could go on patrols lasting several weeks and even up to months. From the beginning they were a mixed unit with both Asian and Western and even African soldiers with officers mainly being Dutch or of mixed Asian / Dutch descend (which were also considered Dutch in the army). Only the best infantry officers and men were selected for the unit. Especially in the 1920s and 1930s a placement there was seen as a good career move for officers and as a sign of being an extraordinary good field officer.

Adriaan Zijlmans was a Marechaussee officer in 1942 during the Japanese invasion. His father had already been an instructor in this unit so it was an honor to be in that unit as well, especially as an officer of mixed descend. In 1935 he had become an officer and was promoted to lieutenant 1st class in 1938. In 1942 he was the commander of the Marechaussee detachment in Koeala Bhee on the west coast of Atjeh. On December 8th war was declared against the Japanese. Many units already had been moved from Sumatra to Java for the defense of this main island of the colony. The amount of soldiers that was left on Sumatra was minimal, not even enough to withstand the now expected local uprising. And on February 23rd of 1942 that uprising started with the killing of a government official. This was shortly after the fall of Malaya. Java the colonies main island and primary target fell on March 8th 1942 opening the way for the Japanese to come to Sumatra which had not been attacked yet.

Safety for the 3000 women and children and other civilians part of the local war plan. These civilians were mainly the women and children of the military forces and they were seen as an easy target by the local guerilla with a lot of emotional impact on the forces. Therefore, after the start of the uprising, all the civilians had already been gathered on the west coast of Atjeh to protect them with military force. With the start of the invasion of the Japanese on Sumatra is was necessary to assess the situation again as the forces were now needed against the Japanese as well. The assessment was done during an officers war council on March 15th 1942. The following goals were defined for the remaining armed forces in the Atjeh region:

  1. To engage the Japanese forces directly and actively as long as possible.
  2. To transport all civilians south, outside of the Atjeh region as their safety could no longer be guaranteed by the available forces.
  3. To cover for this retreat by continuous defensive fighting against the Japanese forces.
  4. After the civilians are outside of the Atjeh region to transport them further to relative safety from war actions to a corporation in Groot Singkel in mid Sumatra.
  5. Start a Guerrilla against the Japanese to harm their actions with the limited forces still available after the previous goals have been reached.

The start of a long and dangerous transport to safety for the civilians. Zijlmans received the responsibility for goals 2 and 4. A total of 15 lorries and multiple cars were available to transport the total of 3000 civilians 600 km to the south. One trip took up to 48 hours and the vehicles took app 400 people in one trip. It turned out to be very long, difficult and also dangerous trips. Several times a trip was hindered and stopped by attacks of local guerilla’s as described in the citation. All these were countered without any casualties to the civilians. During the time it took to complete all trips the Acehnese became more and more hostile towards the outsiders and they became more dangerous for the passengers and their military hosts. Several of the attackers were killed in the process. At the end all civilians were delivered safely to their destination and saw the end of the hostilities against the Japanese there.

Zijlmans became a prisoner of war of the Japanese. On March 23rd all Dutch troops formally surrendered. A small group of men continued with a guerilla but most of them were captured or killed in the year following. As part of his assignment to protect the civilians he also had to surrender himself to the Japanese.

After his liberation in 1945 the continued to serve in the army receiving the Military Order of William on May 18th 1948. The Marechaussee were not reinstalled after the war so this was their last official action with Zijlmans becoming the last Marechaussee to receive this decoration and also the last citation with Atjeh as location which had been one of the most common locations in the last half of the 19th century.

The MWO diploma, framed by Zijlmans

After his return to the Netherlands in 1950 he continued to serve and rose to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in 1958 and got his honorable discharge in 1963. Until he passed away in 1992 he lived in Wassenaar. After his wife also passed away the Diploma came in my custody.

In 1948 he wrote an article about the impact of sleep deprevation on troops. That was before he received the award but is based on the same action. That period and the road trips were so intense and with so much stress and actual fighting that soldiers hardly slept and even started hallucinating in the process of saving the civilians.

Photos of the award ceremony by General Spoor in 1948

Decorations:

  • Militaire Willemsorde 4e klasse
  • Oorlog Herinneringskruis met 2 gespen
  • Kruis voor Trouwe Dienst officieren met cijfer 25

Sources:

  • De Militaire Willems-Orde sedert 1940, door P.G.H. Maalderink, 1982
  • Tijdschrift de “Militaire Spectator” van Augustus 1948
  • “Atjeh en de oorlog met Japan, door Dr Piekaar, 1948

Disclaimer: from the photo’s used in this article I could not retrace the copyright, all came from public sources and are believed to be part of the public domain. There is no intention of infringement of copyrights! If you are the owner please contact me so I can adjust my references.

KNIL – Bronzen Leeuw – oorlogsvluchten, 1942

Dit is een aangepaste versie van het artikel dat eerder in Decorare verscheen.

C.J.H. Samson

Carel Jan Herman Samson werd in 1916 in Soerabaja geboren als zoon van Carell Johan Remy Samson en Maria Pappolo. Zijn vader had een venduhuis in Lawang dat na het overlijden van zijn vader in 1934 voortgezet wordt door zijn moeder en de oudste broer. Anderhalf jaar overlijdt ook zijn moeder op maar 47 jarige leeftijd. Op 20 jarige leeftijd is hij dus wees. Met in totaal 5 kinderen in het gezin waarvan hij dus niet de oudste is zal er weinig geld geweest zijn voor een studie van Carel. In juni 1937 begint hij zijn dienstplicht die hij vrijwillig vervolgde bij de Militaire Luchtvaart van het KNIL in januari 1938 om daar naar de Vieger en Waarnemers school te Andir te gaan. Daar haalt hij in april 1938 zijn Klein Militair Brevet,  juni 1939 zijn Groot Militair Brevet en in januari 1940 zijn Waarnemers Brevet. In juni van dat jaar is zijn opleiding dan volledig afgerond en starten de 7 jaren van zijn “kort dienstverband”  met als rang vaandrig, aspirant officier, Vlieger-Waarnemer. De regeling is zo dat de eerste 5 jaren in werkelijk dienst worden doorgebracht en de volgende jaren als reservist. Hij wordt geplaatst bij de 2e vliegtuig groep te Malang, op Java waar hij in februari 1941 tot 2e luitenant benoemd wordt.

ML-KNIL en de Glenn Martins

De Militaire Luchtvaart van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Indische Leger (ML-KNIL) ontstond als zelfstandig wapen in 1939 maar was in het begin van de oorlog tegen Japan eind 1941 nog niet op volle sterkte. Het bestond uit 5 operationele vliegtuiggroepen (VLG) waarvan de eerste 3 uit bommenwerpers bestonden en de laatste 2 uit jagers. De bommenwerpers vlogen vooral met de Glenn Martin model 139/166. Een toestel dat bij haar ontwikkeling in 1932 nog hypermodern was maar in 1941 al sterk verouderd en geen partij meer voor moderne jagers zoals de Japanse Mitsubishi Zero.

Samson was eind 1941, begin 1942 Patrouillecommandant bij de 1e afdeling van de tweede vliegtuiggroep (1-VLG-II) die te Malang op Java gestationeerd waren. Een patrouille bestond over het algemeen uit 3 vliegtuigen waarvan 1 vlieger de taak had van Patrouillecommandant.

De eerste vliegtuiggroep had 2 afdelingen, de tweede groep had maar 1 afdeling en de derde vliegtuiggroep had 3 afdelingen. Iedere afdeling vloog met 9 vliegtuigen, bij de drie bommenwerper groepen werd met verschillende versies van hetzelfde basismodel Glenn Martin gevlogen. In totaal waren er dus maar zo’n 45 bommenwerpers beschikbaar voor oorlogsvluchten waarvan natuurlijk ook continu een deeI in onderhoud was. Bij de vliegtuiggroep van Samson werd met het laatste type Glenn Martin gevlogen – Samson beschrijft deze zelf als type III.

Martin_166_bombers_ML-KNIL_over_Malaya_1942
Foto van Glenn Martins 139/166 tijdens een oorlogsvlucht (bron: wikipedia)

Oorlogsvluchten en strijd om Nederlandsch Indië

Het boek “”Het verlies van Java” van Dr. P.C. Boer geeft een uitstekende analyse van de geallieerde strijd tegen Japan eind 1941 en begin 1942. Het genoemde boek beschrijft ook in redelijk detail de vluchten die per dag uitgevoerd werden. De naam van Samson en zijn patrouille worden daar veelvuldig genoemd, hij werd door de schrijver ook uitgebreid geïnterviewd. Het gaat te ver om die detailinformatie hier integraal over te nemen maar voor geïnteresseerden beveel ik dit boek van harte aan. Daar valt bijvoorbeeld ook te lezen dat de patrouille Samson veel acties samen vloog met de patrouille Cooke uit de eerste Vliegtuiggroep. De naam Cooke is vooral bekend omdat hij de enige vlieger is die drie keer het Vliegerkruis verleend kreeg.

Samson zelf vulde na zijn krijgsgevangenschap een formulier in over de periode voorafgaand aan zijn gevangenschap. Dit document is bewaard gebleven en de volgende informatie is daarop gebaseerd:

Vanaf 5 december 1941 dus al voor de oorlogsverklaring tot 14 januari 1942 het uitvoeren van verkenningsvluchten vanuit Ambon, Kendari, Malang, Buitenzorg en, daarna enkele dagen niet operationeel (onderhoud). Vervolgens tot begin februari vanaf verschillende locaties lange afstandsverkenningen boven en ten zuiden van de Kleine Soenda eilanden.

In de periode die P.C. Boer in zijn boek beschrijft als de strijd om de luchtsuperioriteit, de eerste fase van de strijd om Java, voert hij vanaf vliegveld Kalindjati bombardementsvluchten uit op Palembang I, Pladjoe, schepen in de Moesie en in straat Bangka waarbij 1 Glenn Martin van zijn patrouille verloren is gegaan maar de bemanning heelhuids teruggekeerd is.

Daarna in de periode die P.C. Boer beschrijft als de strijd om Kalindjati, de eerste vier dagen van Maart voert Samson vanaf vliegveld Andir bombardementsvluchten uit op het vliegveld Kalindjati dat dus inmiddels in handen van de Japanners is. Daarbij gaat een Glenn Martin uit zijn patrouille verloren waarvan alleen de telegrafist het overleefd.

Van 4 tot 8 maart wordt de eindstrijd om de Tjiater pas gevoerd zoals P.C. Boer dit omschrijft en wederom voert Samson meerdere bombardementen uit. Op 8 maart in Tasikmalaja, de dag van de capitulatie worden de laatste – niet operationele – Glenn Martins vernietigd om te voorkomen dat ze in handen vallen van de Japanners. Het wordt ook de eerste dag van de krijgsgevangenschap van Samson en zijn collega’s, slechts één van alle Glenn Martins van de ML KNIL is nog operationeel en weet naar Australië te ontkomen.

Na 1942

Over de periode van Samsons krijgsgevangenschap is weinig terug te vinden behalve dat hij in Japan zelf gezeten heeft en daar op 28 augustus 1945 bevrijd werd en vervolgens op 26 september te Manilla geregistreerd werd. In oktober van dat jaar komt hij terug in Indië en gaat over naar No 18 Squadron. In juni 1946 wordt hij tot tijdelijk 1e luitenant bevorderd. Daarna volgen er in de periode van de politionele acties verschillende overplaatsingen, onder andere naar No 16 Squadron en vervolgens wordt hij hoofd van de Elementaire Opleidingsschool afgekort als EOS (onderdeel van de Centrale Vliegschool, afgekort als CVS). Zijn Bronzen Leeuw wordt op 1 september 1948 uitgereikt. In 1949 wordt hij nog benoemd tot Kapitein in de reserve en in 1950 wordt hij gedemobiliseerd.

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Brevetboekje van Samson uit 1948 met Vlieger Waarnemer wing KNIL

Bronzen Leeuw

De Bronzen Leeuw (BL) werd in 1944 ingesteld als dapperheidsonderscheiding, na de Militaire Willemsorde de hoogste dapperheidsonderscheiding in het toenmalige en huidige Nederlandse decoratiestelsel. Het is in praktische zin de opvolger van de Eervolle Vermelding op het Ereteken voor Belangrijke Krijgsverrichtingen dat dan al niet meer in gebruik is en de vervanger van de wel in gebruik zijn de  Eervolle Vermeldingen op het Bronzen Kruis (1940), Kruis van Verdienste (1941) en Vliegerkruis (1941), dit gebeurde in totaal 135 keer. Het standaardwerk Bronzen Leeuw / Bronzen Kruis van Henny Meijer is een belangrijke bron van informatie over deze onderscheiding. Tussen 1944 en 1962 werd de onderscheiding 1206 keer uitgereikt, waarvan 1 keer aan een vaandel en 8 mensen ontvingen de BL voor een tweede maal. Van de 1206 werden er 336 verleend aan geallieerden, 62 aan de Koopvaardij en 119 aan burgers (voornamelijk verzet). De Militaire Luchtvaart van het KNIL ontving 23 Bronzen Leeuwen waarvan 16 voor de strijd tegen Japan in 1941/42.

Medailleset op Dagelijks Tenu jaren 60 met ingewoven Vlieger-Waarnemer wing.

In en direct na de oorlog werd een Engels aanmaak van de onderscheiding uitgereikt zoals in het geval van Samson. De ophanging is ongebruikelijk. Deze versie werd door Garrard gemaakt. Later komen er ook versies van de Rijks Munt.

Hier de tekst uit de benoeming: “Heeft zich in de strijd tegenover de vijand door het bedrijven van bijzonder moedige en beleidvolle daden onderscheiden door als commandant van een patrouille bommenwerpers, onder moeilijke omstandigheden vele malen, in de maanden Februari en Maart 1942, op onverschrokken wijze succesvolle bomaanvallen uit te voeren op belangrijke doelen, t.w. op Muntok, op schepen in de straat Bangka, op vliegveld en olievelden Palembang en op vliegveld Kalidjati, waarvan bekend was, dat zij door een overmacht van vijandelijke jachtvliegtuigen en door zwaar afweervuur werden verdedigd.”

Na 1950

Na zijn aankomst in Nederland wordt hij aangenomen bij de Koninklijke luchtmacht. Waar hij in 1952 instructeur op de Harvard wordt. In 1954 wordt hij benoemd tot Majoor en twee jaar later volgt hij de opleiding tot Helikopter vlieger. In 1957 volgt hij de cursus tot leger vluchtwaarnemer en in 1968 een advanced weapons cursus bij SHAPE. Tot zijn pensioen in 1969 volgt nog de benoeming tot Luitenant-Kolonel. Vanaf 1950 zijn er veel plaatsingen bij de verschillende vliegbasissen in Nederland maar ook bij de Luchtmachtstaf. Toch lijkt het zwaartepunt van zijn militaire carrière bij de eerste jaren te liggen, in de naoorlogse jaren is hij vooral betrokken bij de opleiding van nieuwe piloten. Na zijn pensionering haalt hij nog de benodigde burger brevetten zowel voor particulier als commercieel piloot. Over de periode tot zijn overlijden in 1993 heb ik geen informatie gevonden.

Samson in dagelijks tenu (jaren 60?) met wing en lintjes. Daarnaast zijn DT uit de periode voor zijn pensioen met lintjes en metalen wing. Leren gedrukte nametag met wing – in dit geval de gewone vink en niet de Vlieger-Waarnemer, misschien is die niet gemaakt in deze vorm?

Bronnen:

  1. Meijer, H.G. (1990), Bronzen Leeuw, Bronzen Kruis. Amsterdam, Nederland: De Bataafsche Leeuw
  2. Boer, P.C. (2006), Het verlies van Java. Amsterdam, Nederland: De Bataafsche Leeuw

KNIL – Honorable Mention (Eervolle Vermelding), J.P. ter Beek, Bali 1849

The Dutch Gallantry medals had, for a very long time in history, only one order for all different levels of Gallantry, the Military Order of William which was instituted in 1815.  For lesser deeds of Gallantry there was the “Eervolle Vermelding” which translates to “Honorable Mention” or for the Anglo-Saxon world a Mention in Despatches also instituted in 1815. For this there was no visible display of the honor. By many in the forces this was felt as an omission in the military decoration system. An unofficial wreath was worn with several different medals to make the Honorable Mention visible. Only in 1878 this was changed by the use of a crown device to be worn on the “Expedition Cross” that had been instituted in 1869. For multiple awards the number (2 or 3) would be displayed below the crown.

During WW2 the crown was finally replaced by several new medals for Gallantry and only one more clasp was added to the Expedition Cross (Timor 1942).

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Multiple example of the crown device and to the left an example of the unofficial wreath. (not my collection!)

Bali 1849 – Honorable Mention for J.P ter Beek, MD for the Royal Dutch Navy

As mentioned before the Expedition Cross dates from 1869 and at that same moment 6 clasp were instituted going back to as early as 1846, the first Bali Expedition. All living participants of these 6 expeditions would get the medal with clasp and an award certificate. These first 6 clasps belong to the rarer ones but the award document even more so (as there were more clasps produced than actually handed out to living participants). The navy only had a small part in the total number of crosses awarded so is even rarer.

Medical Doctor Ter Beek of the Royal Dutch Navy participated in the 3rd Bali campaign in 1849 on board of the “Z. M. fregat Prins van Oranje”  (the flagship of the campaign).

Ter Beek retired from the Navy in 1859 and became a General Practitioner in the city of Kampen in the Netherlands. Ten years later, 20 years after the campaign, he received the Expedition cross with the Clasp Bali 1849 and the award certificate shown below.

terbeek2

In 1878 the aforementioned Crown device for wear on the Expedition Cross was instituted and also handed out retrospectively to those who had earned the Crown in the period before its existence. As Ter Beek was also Honorably Mentioned in the same Bali campaign he would get the Crown device and the diploma in that year, 30 years after the campaign for which it was bestowed!

terbeek4

Above the diploma for the Honorable Mention and below the accompanying letter and the Expedition Cross with clasp and crown device.

This combination of a rare clasp with Honorable Mention for the same campaign and all documents confirming this may very well be unique in its kind! Especially so a Navy version!

His son A.W.K. ter Beek also chose a life of service and joined the Dutch East Indies Army where he would be awarded a Military Order of William 4th class, Honor Sword and Honorable Mention. The related documents to that are in the hands of another collector!

KST – Speciale Troepen KNIL SOP para actiewing – wing for combat jump

The Netherlands East Indies Army Special Forces made four combat jumps in december 1948 and early 1949. A special wing to commemorate this was designed and worn in 1949/50.

Photo: collection Theo Jacobs through S.Postma
An action wing as seen above in the picture of Jacobs (not his)

Djokjakarta

The first and most important combat jump was part of the so called 2nd Politionele Actie. A large scale military action against the Indonesian army. The military aim was to reclaim Djokjakarta that was in Indonesian hands. The action started with a combat jump by the Para Battle Group of the Speciale Troepen on the airfield Magoewo close to Djokjakarta. The action started on December 19th 1948.

Photo from the NIMH collection

The preparations for “Operation Crow” as this large scale airborne operation was called had already started in january of 1948 when the 1st Para Company (app 250 men including the staff of the Airborne School, SOP) was combined with the 2nd Para Company (app 150 men) of the Korps Speciale Troepen. The unit was renamed in Para Battle Group (para gevechtsgroep of app 400 men) and led by Captain Eekhout. After the airfield was taken from the Indonesian army, planes with the commando’s of the Korps Speciale Troepen and 2 infantry units were flown in to take the whole city of Djokjakarta back.

Museum Bronbeek, inventarisnummer: 2007/06/04-3/1

The Airborne troops were transported in 16 Dakota C-47 planes and a total of 370 para’s made this combat jump. A very extensive description of the further action can be found in the sources (in Dutch).

Djambi

Shortly after this action the men had to make a second combat jump. This was already on December 29th 1948, only 10 days after the first combat jump. This time the action was on the Island of Sumatra to secure the oil fields of Djambi.

Photo from the NIMH collection .

Rengat

Soon again a 3rd combat jump would be made during “Operation Mud (Modder)” in Rengat, again protecting oil fields in Sumatra. This time only the 1st Para Company would make the jump.

In a period spanning less than 3 weeks 3 combat jumps were made by approximately 370 men in total (not all men in all three jumps).

Gading

March 1949 was the last of four combat jumps. This one was on Java again and aimed at a large group of resistance fighters. After the jump it turned out the intelligence was outdated and the group had already left the region.

Qualification Wing – with golden laurel for combat jumps

The wing that was used as a qualification wing in 1947 was redesigned in 1949 for those who had particiapted in one or more of these combat jumps.

The 1947 qualification wing in metal (ex Bob Cats collection)
This type of qualification wing being worn by the para to the right. Photo from the NIMH collection.

A golden laurel (as in the beret wing) was added to the basic design. As with all badges in the Netherlands East Indies there were metal and cloth versions. The metal versions of the badges were only made and worn in the Netherlands East Indies Army in 1949 and early 1950. Of those only around 400 (all men of the para battle group, 370, that made combat jumps and the staff of the SOP that also participated in the combat jumps) were ever made.

Many para’s of Indonesian descent chose to remain in the new Indonesia but the wing could no longer be worn/shown as they were seen as signs of the colonial oppression! The metal version could no longer be worn in the Netherlands only cloth wings were officially allowed to be worn on the uniform. This type of metal wing is now very rare and highly collectable!

The 1949 Action Wing in metal

There are two versions of this metal wing the one shown below (both same type) is the larger of the two variations. It has been thinly painted (most often worn off) and it has a non standard closure on the back. This seems to be the official version.

Reverse of the Action Wing in a very good condition
And a version of the same wing where the paint is worn down (typical for this variant)

The other type is in the Cordesius style both with the closure and the thicker enamel style painting that chips but does not wear down so much and a less shiny type of metal is used. It is much rarer so probably a privately purchased item.

The difference between these two wings can mainly be seen by the size and paint quality. And of course the type of closure. Below the standard type of closure that is used on the smaller version (not my collection).

Variation 2 which is slightly smaller and has a different metal and closure

Below two period photo’s of the metal wing for combat jumps being worn.

Here two versions of the cloth action wing, both from the estate of an officer of the 1st Para Company with thanks to the family for allowing to show them here! These badges were made and worn in the Indies and not after (the officer left the service upon return to the Netherlands).

Version with golden laurel but no silver wire. It is filled with a pin on the back for easy removal from the uniform as was customary in the Indies.
Slightly different from the version above as this one has silver wire surrounding the chute and wings.

Below two photo’s of the cloth being worn in the Indies. Unfortunately the quality of the photo’s is not very sharp but it is clear both are the action wing.

And two previously unpublished photo’s that I was allowed to use here in the blog by the family of one of the para’s in the photo’s.

These photo’s cannot be reproduced without the consent of the owner!

Several metal and cloth actionwings can be seen in this group! (copyright)
Here a metal wing with action jumps and a regular qualification wing in cloth. (copyright)

Upon return to the Netherlands “standard” insignia were worn by all on the battle dresses. Here an example of such a wing from the same estate as the two other cloth wings shown before.

Lt Castelein upon his return to the Netherlands in 1950 with the wing shown below.
This type is not filled like the versions which were worn in the Indies but these worn directly sewn onto the Battle Dress. They were made in Indonesia for use on the BD.
Two more examples of this type of wing worn on the battle dress. This photo was taken on the ship to the Netherlands (photo collection Museum Bronbeek).

A miniature version of the action wing was also made in Indonesia (in metal). Here is an example worn by Lt. Castelein in 1950 after his return to civilian life.

If you have additional info please let me know so I can update my blog!

Oilfields of Djambi after the combat jump. Photo from the NIMH collection

If you have an example of this wing for sale or trade please do contact me at info@erikscollectables.com with a photo and the relevant info!

Sources:

https://www.dutchdefencepress.com/vechten-in-een-oorlog-die-zo-niet-mocht-worden-genoemd-%E2%80%93-deel-2/ 

https://www.dutchdefencepress.com/vechten-in-een-oorlog-die-zo-niet-mocht-worden-genoemd-%E2%80%93-deel-3/

Museum Bronbeek, inventarisnummer: 2007/06/04-3/1

https://www.noviomagus.nl/h1.php?p=Gastredactie/Meijer/BronzenKruisdragers/TheoJacobs.htm

Main photo from the NIMH collection.

KST – Speciale Troepen KNIL para wings from the estate of a decorated Instructor

Hans Ulrich (Boy) Kloër was a Sergeant Major Intructor for the Netherlands East Indies Army Special Forces Airborne School (SOP) and served as a commando before that within the Speciale Troepen.

All personell of the School for Airborne Training (SOP – School Opleiding voor Parachutisten) also were active in the large scale operations of the Special Forces and most importantly directly involved in the three combat jumps that were made by the Airborne Troops.

Estate

As an Airborne School (SOP) Sergeant Major Instructor and one of the last SOP staff members in Indonesia he took in the wings in 1950 from indigenous troops who did not want to go to the Netherlands after the colonial army was disbanded.

The para’s who remained in Indonesia had to hand over all their surplus materials, uniforms and badges. He kept these wings during all his life, never touching them again untill he passed away in 2006.

From his estate several wings have come to the market and I have been able to buy some of these for my collection. You can see all three period (silver, bronze and brass) variations of of the first model wings but in different conditions. Some have been higly polished during a longer period of time, others are bend to slightly curve in the form of the beret or have period repairs and some are still in great and complete condition.

The unique provenance of these wings make them very interesting to the collector as these are all worn originals from the active period in the Dutch East Indies and give a perfect overview of what was in use at that moment. It is a time capsule!

An overview of the subtle colour variations in this group. From gilded, real silver to brass, copper and bronze colours!

Bronze Lion

Kloër was decorated for his role in these combat jumps with the Bronze Lion, the second highest decoration for Gallantry in the Netherlands! Between 1944 and 1963 only 1211 were awarded and more recently for actions in Afghanistan is has been awarded a few times again.

Awarded by Royal Decree No 25 of December 9th 1949:

Has distinguished himself by very brave and faithful service in the face of the enemy.

After having distinguished himself by his cool and brave performance as Commander of a group Airborne Troops on December 19th 1948 by, after having landed on the Magoewo Airfield (Djokjakarta), breaking the enemy resistance and capturing a large quantity of arms and ammunition, after which on December 29th 1948 and January 5th 1949 again participated in an exemplary manner during the capture of the oilfields of Tempino (Djambi) and Rengat.

Due to his brave and resolute performance the drill towers and pumping stations fell into the hands of the Airborne Troops unharmed, although a large and fanatic group of enemies tried to prevent this. Singlehandedly Kloër disarmed the explosives on several of the drill towers. In less than 3 hours 108 drill towers in a range of 1 to 2 kms and also stations for pumps, radio and electricity were saved from destruction and fire and the city cleansed from hostile elements.

Again after the landing on Rengat he showed himself as a brave and persistent leader, who, after breaking the enemy resistance with his Airborne Troops, capturing the electricity plant and without hesitation by himself extinguish the already lit fuses of bombs just in time before exploding.

In the Netherlands with ribbon for the Bronze Lion

Many thanks to the family for allowing me to use these photo’s! All materials apart from the wings are still part of the family estate.

Source:  Erik Müller, 1944-2016 De Bronzen Leeuw. Voor bijzonder moedige en beleidvolle daden

KST – Speciale Troepen KNIL badge

Short history of the Special Forces of the Netherlands East Indies Army

The Depot Speciale Troepen came into existense in 1946 on the island of Java. It was a commando unit similar to WW2 English units were the intructors had been trained. They wore the green commando beret and would exist of 3 companies. Parallel to this an Airborne unit, the 1st Para Company was established in 1947 wearing the famous red berets and para wing. In 1948 the Depot Speciale Troepen was transformed to the Korps Speciale Troepen which included also one Para-Commando unit called the 2nd Para Company, Green Berets with the para wing!

The two standard/official versions of the Speciale Troepen badge in metal and bullion

For “Operation Crow” a large scale airborne operation with combat jump the 1st Para Company and the 2nd Korps Speciale Troepen Para Company were combined in one Para Battle Group. In 1949 all of these units were included in the new Regiment Speciale Troepen.

Regiment Speciale Troepen (Photo NIMH)

Badges in the 1946-1950 period

In the post 1945 period all Dutch forces in the East Indies designed badges for their units. At first unofficially but soon this custom became official. Most badges were made in metal and coloured with a thin layer of paint/enemal. If used the paint would often chip so to find perfect examples is hard.

Secondary versions were also made in cloth and sometimes even different versions and sizes in metal. The most well known maker was Cordesius & Zn in Batavia but other makers existed andoften used slightly different colours and not always had the same quality.

For the Speciale Troepen a badge was approved in December 1947. Two metal versions are known (both version with no maker markings). Several cloth versions exist but the most common version is a high quality version with bullion details, these were locally made.

Period bullion version

In 1949 there were three companies of Commando’s, approximately 400 men and two companies op Para’s approximately 400 men. So around 800 men were qualified to wear the Speciale Troepen badge. Half of these men remained in Indonesia after the colonial period.

Cloth version being worn on the trip to Europe on the English style Battle Dress photo from Museum Bronbeek, inventarisnummer: 2007/06/04-3

Also several copies of the cloth insignia exist were the best known version is from the 1980s and is easily recognizable as a fake.

On the trip from Indonesia to the Netherlands the soldiers would get English style battle dresses for use in Europe. On these battle dresses cloth badges would be worn, as can be seen in the first picture of this blog. After 1954 only the cloth jump qualification wings could be worn including those with action jumps. Soon the circle under the parachute would change to a small rectangle as on English jump wings.

Version of the badges being worn are hard to find. In the pictures (from internet) you can see them being worn, often only partially visible.

Person on the left also wears the badge.

If you have examples of the badge in metal for sale or trade please let me know at: info@erikscollectables.com

Sources:

First photo: Museum Bronbeek, inventarisnummer: 2007/06/04-3/1

https://www.militairespectator.nl/sites/default/files/bestanden/uitgaven/1997/1997-0149-01-0047.PDF

KST – Speciale Troepen KNIL SOP Para Wing

The Dutch East Indies Army had a long tradition with anti guerilla style combat before the war, especially with the Korps Marechaussee. After the second worldwar this knowledge was enhanced with that of the new Airborne and Commando groups.

A new unit was formed in 1946 the Special Forces Regiment (Depot/Korps/Regiment Speciale Troepen KNIL).

Badge of the KST/RST.

In 1947 also a Para Company was formed (1st Para Company / I Para) which was not part of the Speciale Troepen unit that was only Commando’s at that moment. At the height of the unit it would consist of some 250 men including the staff of the SOP.

Two variations of the badge used by the 1st Para Company and the SOP

In 1948 the Commando’s also would form a Para-Commando Company (2nd Para Company / Para Cie KST) which would consist of around 150 men.

All para’s were trained by the SOP – School Opleiding Parachutisten – Airborne School for the jump qualification.

Captain Eekhout, commander of the Para Battle Group (photo NIMH)

For the large scale Airborne action called “Operation Crow” (december 1948) these two units would be combined in the Para Battle Group (Para Gevechtsgroep). The total group would consist of some 400 men with Airborne qualifications including the SOP staff that would also participate in the action. The majority of these forces received both Commando and Airborne training.

Although the unit was KNIL it was open to volunteers meeting the criteria including regular draftees of the Expeditionary Forces. For the unity of uniform KNIL ranks would be used for all.

Bronze
Brass
Silver

Red and Green Berets in one unit!

The 1st Para Company formed in 1947 would wear the red beret. The commando’s would wear a green beret. When the commando’s started their para training in 1948 they would wear the green beret with the para wing on it after completion of the course. Later as the Para Battle Group all would wear red berets, again for unity of dress.

Photo from the NIMH collection

Some officers received the Green Beret without going through additional training. In most cases this was based on their Marechaussee experience from before the war.

On the green beret the Dutch Lion was worn as with the WW2 Dutch commando’s ( No 2 Dutch Troop No 10 Interallied Commando ). This Lion was normally in metal but KNIL officers could use the KNIL version embroidered in gold with a wreath.

The red beret with the wing was the sign of completion of all Para-Commando (airborne) training and handed out at the end of the course. It was a symbol of achievement that was worn proudly! The “topi merah”.

History of the wing

Version one: In an earlier Dutch article published in Armamentaria, the magazine of the Dutch Military Museum, a short history of the wing was given. Originally it was designed for use as a qualification wing for the Experimental Para Group of the Netherlands East Indies Army in 1941. A batch of these wings in bronze was made but never used it states.

The instructors of the Airborne school (SOP) had their background in either this Korps Insulinde or in the No 2 Dutch Troop No 10 Interallied Commando . When the first airborne training course was completed in june 1947 a choice had to be made which badge was going to be used as the qualification wing.

The actual jump qualification wing as used from mid 1947

As the majority of the instructors had a British para qualification wing already and were attached to this a very similar design was chosen.

Photo from the NIMH collection.

The batch of wings already made in bronze that was still available now was designated as wing to be worn on the red beret. To behanded out after completing the full airborne training ( so not only jump qualified) which was only by the end of 1947 for the first group.

SOP instructors – Museum Bronbeek, inventarisnummer: 2007/06/04-3/1

Version two: The wing was designed only in 1946 by sergeant Kampschuur of the Airborne School together with the badge for that school in an assignment by captain Sisselaar commander of the school. A small batch of the wings was produced in bronze (as this was the colour in use for the aviation wings of the KNIL at that time) in 1946. The wing was designed as a qualification wing. Due to unknown reasons the batch was forgotten and in the meantime the regular (English style) qualification wing had already come into regular use.

With the introduction of the red beret there was a wish for a badge to be worn on this beret. The old batch of wings was relocated and used for this. The first groups would get the bronze wings. Later production was done with the same mold/dye but mainly in brass and a small quantity in silver.

Photo from the NIMH collection.

Which history is correct?

In my opinion the 1946 design is the most likely as the dagger seems to be a first pattern FS fighting knife (came into use only in 1940/41 and not yet widespread at that moment) and the pose resembles the silent killing instruction photo’s of the later WWII commando’s.

My hypothesis is that the design was based on the hand with dagger in the Korps Insulinde menu from 1942, pictured below. Korps Insulinde: the unit was officially named “Netherlands Special Operations” a WW2 commando unit that started in August 1942 in Ceylon and was aimed at gathering intelligence against the Japanese.

Captain Sisselaar was one of the members of this unit and the later commander of the Airborne School (SOP) and the new badge was designed for him based on version two of the history.

Device for action jumps

The eyelet below the wreath was soldered on seperately, it was not part of the dye/mold! It was to be used for a device to show combat jumps when it was still a qualification wing is the common understanding. The device (possibly a dagger) was never actually made/used. Nevertheless all three variations had this eyelet soldered on!

Materials

This first batch was in bronze in both versions of the history of the wing. This batch was used for the first groups that received the red beret by the end of 1947. When this batch was finished new batches were made using the same dye/mold. Somewhere in the process of making new batches brass was chosen as the material as this could be polished better, a desire of many of the new para’s!

Selection of period wings in all three materials, all from the Kloër estate.

Another variation was made in (low grade / Djokja) silver! Regarding the silver version several stories/opinions are given none can be substantiated so far. For instructors, for people with combat jumps, for officers etc.

The brass version is the most common (probably around 60% of the total made but still rare with only around 400 active paratroopers in those 4 years!). Bronze and silver seem to be equally rare (probably around 20% each).

Some collectors claim the material variations are only unintentional differences in the alloy mix. Just different production batches using a slightly different alloy as available at that moment.

Museum Bronbeek, inventarisnummer: 2007/06/04-3

Patination of wings, why?

One of the new insights that came from the Kloër estate is that many if not all of the wings were patinated to a dark colour which was subesquently polished off again in use. It is unclear if this was done as part of the process of completing new wings or was done by the para’s themselves. A reason could be that in the combat jumps they did not want the wing to be shiny (after the drop most para’s ditched their helmet and wore the red beret instead) so they applied the dark patination before the combat jumps and polished off again after. A production variation seems more likely nevertheless.

Wings with various states of patination – on all material, bronze, brass and silver. The patination was only applied to the front, not the back!

Below the subtle colour variations that all come from the Kloër estate of period wings. From dark patianted bronze to brass, copper, silver and gilded with some in between colours.

Variatons and strikes

A good overview of all the period variations can be found in the Kloër estate that I described in another blog. All examples below and most above come from that estate (only some of these are in my collection but I was able to handle a large portion of the estate for this blog). As these wings all were taken in at the same time in Indonesia they give a great overview of what was worn and done at that moment in time. It forms a perfect time capsule, made in 1950 before the unit was dissolved and the return to the Netherlands. The time capsule came to light only after his death in 2006 when the family found the bag with wings.

It also seems the quality of either the strikes or the dyes/molds themselves resulted in lower quality of the result over the period of almost four years of production. This is visible in the hand, the wreath and especially the lines of the parachute. The amount of polishing could have an effect too of course!

Three levels of the quality of the strike, front version also heavily polished by the owner

Further “miss strikes” or poorly finished examples also exist and seem to have been worn also! Remember all these examples were taken back from the men in 1950 as worn to that date.

Sometimes the strike did not go well as in this example which seems to be struck twice! See the dagger and hand which seem to have a shadow.

The example below also shows how the production was done. Firstly the image was impressed on a plate of base material. Secondly the form was stamped out. This example was impressed perfectly in the first stage but the stamping of the form in the second stage went wrong. Probably the plate moved a few mm.

Nice to see the eyelet has been soldered on too – this example went through quality control as is….

Several unofficial variations/alterations in style of wear are found. One is that the men curved/rounded the wing to follow the form of the baret, another is that the tip of the wings are bent upwards.

From straight, to slightly and very curved
Or curved in the form of actual wings.
Upward bent tips of the wing. Not my collection, photo from the owner

Below a version that has been gilded. Probably to get the shiny look without frequent polishing. Again from the Kloër estate so certainly a period item as worn!

Top gold plated, below the most common brass version
Photo from the NIMH collection.

A closer study of the period photo’s shown further above also reveal that the eyelet beneath the wing often was already broken off in regular wear. The wings sometimes show other defects too.

Last parade of the Para Battlegroup in Indonesia,
Museum Bronbeek, inv49entarisnummer: 2007/06/04-3

Second strike – 1949 or 1950?

The version found often in collections is the later strike, sometimes called the second strike, other times the third strike depending on the source. This version is always in brass, no other versions exist and it is slightly different from the first strike version discussed above.

All clear/high quality period pictures up to 1949 show the first strike examples only. That leads to my hypothesis this later strike is either very late production (1949/50) in Indonesia or production in the Netherlands. This in order to replace missing and broken wings of the first type upon or after the return to the Netherlands. Probably the original dye had been worn out over time as can been seen in the quality of some later first strike examples

Several men in a magazine article can be seen with this later type of wing shortly after their arrival in the Netherlands.

Differences are: Guard of the blade passes the second line of the parachute (counting from left). Blade is longer. Hand is thicker. Arm is shorter. Wreath is more crudely designed. Chute is thicker. Overall the material is thicker than in the first strikes. You can compare both versions below.

2nd later strike
First strike, brass
Back of the 2nd/later strike with full relief

Below a photo from 1950s – in the Netherlands with a second/later strike wing being worn. These wings were worn up to 1954/55 within the army.

From an article about the para’s after their arrival in the Netherlands, 2nd/later strike

Return to Holland

Of 800 men of the Regiment Speciale Troepen only around 400 were Airborne qualified. Of the total of 800 men some 400 chose to stay in Indonesia. Around 250 were brought to the Netherlands in the first half of 1950. Around 125 Speciale Troepen participants of the APRA first had to finish their prison sentence before being discharged (dishonorably). Many of these men went to Holland, despite the way they were treated by the government, as it was safer for them and their families.

First parade of the Para Battlegroup in Holland,
Museum Bronbeek, inventarisnummer: 2007/06/04-3

Version of unknown background

Below another version of which only some examples are known. When it was made and in what quantity is unknown. It is based on the first strike, all examples again are in brass. The back shows that the material appears like it was cast and not struck like the first versions and the 2nd/later strike. All known specimen have the same number in the back so it is not a serial number. This is sometimes called the 2nd strike (and then the version above is the 3rd strike in that case) or the in between strike. Due to the unknown background I personally do not classify it as an original but it might be.

Not my collection, photo’s from the owner

Copies

Several poor quality copies and some slightly better copies of these wings exist. These were made in the 1990s in Poland in several variations, all quite easily recognized. Even a variation with a swastika. A comparison with the originals can easily be made, there are more signs to look for so beware! Versions with makers (like Stokes) are all later fakes.

Recently a high quality fake has appeared on the market. It is still possible to recognize it on high res photo’s but not nearly as easy as the Polish fakes that have been around for a long time. In hand it is much easier if you have an original to compare it with.

Recent fake of high quality. I will not list the differences but do take a good look!

Most of these fakes are based on the first strike and bronze in color where the most common original version of the first strike is brass (bronze and silver are significantly rarer).

Overview of older (80s/90s) fakes and BOP variations made by Kees Smulders

Next to the fakes there are “reunion” versions made for the BOP (union of former parachutists). These were sold to the men who no langer had their original wings. These wings are based on the second/later strike and always in brass. This type is sometimes seen/sold as an original version but these were made in the 1960s up to the 1990s! The eyelet beneath the wreath is not soldered on (as with originals) but it is cast/struck in one piece as an integral part of the badge.

Front and back of a BOP “reunion” wing.

With the originals often the eyelet beneath the wing or on the back are either missing or have been replaced at a later date. To find a complete first strike version has become difficult (with less than 400 para’s of which only about half came to the Netherlands of whom many received new baretwings in the Netherlands)!

Korea

After 1950 the Dutch East Indies Army including the Special Forces were disbanded. Veterans continued to wear the beret badge up to july 1955 in the regular Dutch army. With the start of the Korean conflict the Dutch also formed a detachment. The Special Forces veterans were on the top of the list for recruitment. As a result of this many Special Forces beret wings were worn in the Korean conflict!

Korea Detachment (1st) with several wings visible!
Museum Bronbeek, inventarisnummer: 2007/06/04-3
Photo NIMH – In Korea, wing worn on the Cold Weather Cap

Sources:

https://www.defensie.nl/onderwerpen/historische-canons/historische-canon-korps-commando-troepen/het-korps-paraat/korps-insulinde

First photo: Museum Bronbeek, inventarisnummer: 2007/06/04-3/1

http://www.hetdepot.com/sop.html

Opdracht Sumatra – Het Korps Insulinde – 1942-1946, J.Th. A. de Man, 1987

Westerling’s oorlog. Indonesië 1945-1950, J.A. de Moor, 2000

KNIL – Airforce Wings (ML KNIL)

Even though my focus is on the para wings of the KNIL a small collection of aviation wings is also part of my collection

Today I will describe the few wings of the Airforce (ML KNIL) from my current collection:

Pilot and Navigator (combined) Wing
Bomber Wing
Radio Operator (Telegraphist) Wing

Mechanic Wing

Pilot and Navigator wings

The aviator and navigator wing for the ML KNIL were introduced in 1922 as two seperate wings. From 1932 a combination was made. The basic wing of the aviator now could be combined with that of the navigator by adding the W (waarnemer = navigator) to the pilot wing as most pilots would have the double qualification and no longer needed two wings to show this. The seperate wings for single qualification would stay in use but are relatively rare.

Crew Wings

These models of wings for crew members were introduced in 1940. At that moment there was still peace in the Dutch East Indies but the war in the Netherlands already was lost. Wings were produced locally. These all have a dark (bronze) colour and no makers name. These wings are solid (so not impressed on the back).

This changed after the Indies were lost to the Japanese in 1942. All forces and planes evacuated to Australia as far as possible. Troops left behind ended up as Prisoners of War with the Japanese invaders. During the remainder of the war the operations in the pacific were continued from Australia. The education of new pilots and aviation crews for the Dutch East Indies Army was mostly done in the USA. This had as a result that wings were produced in both the USA and Australia.

Makers

In the USA one maker was used, Amico. In Australia two makers were used KG Luke and Stokes. All makers have slight differences in the feathers of the wings Colour is the easiest distinction between the USA and Australian versions. Amico used the dark bronze colour that was also the standard before the war. In Australia the colour (and material?) was brass. Most wings produced after 1941 are also marked by the maker but not all.

Stokes

War period style closure

The Bomber and Radio Operator wings are made by Stokes but are from different batches. The Bomber is a rare variation with the pre-war style closure (3 hooks placed on the back) where the Radio Operator had a pin as shown. According to Rob Vis (the foremost Dutch Wing Collector) in 1942 when the KNIL had to evacuate to Australia a rush order was placed for some types of wings and these were ordered with the old (then standard) style closure. Later production batches all had the regular pin backs. The bomber is in general quire rare as post 1945 these were no longer produced. The bombers were used as strafers in Indonesia so bomb aimers were no longer trained.

Amico

Below the reverse of an Aviator combined with Navigator (W for Waarnemer) wing made by Amico in the USA. Note the different style of wing/feathers and the darker colour despite being polished to shine in the past...

1st Lt Samson wearing the Aviator/Navigator wing
Pilot/navigator qualification booklet (brevet) for Lt Samson (see link below)

Local version

The Mechanic Wing shown above is of the locally made variation and does not have a makers mark. I think it was made in 1940/41 but it also might have been produced in the 1945-50 period. I am still looking for furhter info on these local made variations.

As mentioned before the colour is dark (bronze) and it has a simple closure. Compared with the Stokes versions this one has a flat reverse.

Copies

According to Mr. Vis reproductions of the Stokes early batch type of wing also exist but are of lower quality. The same goes for regular Stokes, Amico and Luke wings. As all of the ML KNIL wings are relatively rare reproductions have been made to fool collectors so please study before buying! Most reproduction show differences if you can directly compare them to an original in hand. In photo’s it can be difficult!

A great overview of all ML KNIL wings can be found here.

More reading can be done in Tristan Broos his book Het Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch leger (Geschiedenis, uniformering en uitrustingen 1911-1942)

Or read about the story behind a Bronze Lion for bomber pilot Lt Samson

And two pages with some background information from the book: Gedenkboek Militaire Luchtvaart 1914-1939 by M. van Haselen. This book I can highly recommend for the prewar history of the ML KNIL.

KNIL – Reserve and Legion badges

In the years leading up to World War 2 the Netherlands East Indies started also making preparations. On of these was extending the amount of men that could be called to arms in the form of a reserve. The largest base for this were former (indigenous) men of the KNIL that had been honorably discharged.

Two variations of the same badge by different makers, note the difference in the sword etc.

To increase the visibility of the reserve a badge was introduced in November 1939. The badge was worn on the civilian clothing. A version of this badge is shown above. In 1941 the total reserve of former KNIL men amounted to 4700.

How many badges were actually made and handed out remains unclear but looking at the potential number of 4700 and only two years of use of the badge (1940/41) and the fact that the majority of these indigenous reservists became POW’s in 1942/1945 and most of these remained in Indonesia after WW2 it can be considered a rare badge now.

Reverse with both types having the same type of closure

Other versions of reserve badges also exist for the Royal Legions Surakarta, Jogjakarta and Madura. These were introduced in 1940 and also intended for use on civilian clothes. The members of these legions were also part-time soldiers. These badges can be considered even rarer! So far I have found no pictures of these badges being worn. All these badges are in the same basic form of a shield with the Red/White/Blue flag on it and a weapon in the centre. They were only for wear on civilian clothes on the left breast.

Badge of the Royal Legion of Mangkoe Negoro (Surakarta), reverse is the same as the other badges.

Somewhat later the Home Guard (Landwacht) was introduced which existed of men not otherwise mobilized for different reasons. The basic badge has the word LANDWACHT at the bottom but versions for specific towns also exist. These amounted to a total of approximately 27.500 men.

The basic Home Guard badge as worn on the Home Guard uniform (so not on civilian clothes)

Sources: B.C. Cats, ‘Hulpkorpsen in voormalig Nederlands-Indië, hun uniformering en onderscheidingstekenen’, in: Armamentaria 23 (1988).